As of Windows 10 build 1803 case sensitive files names can be enabled on Windows. This is a feature that I have found useful while working in an environment where some developers run macOS and others run Windows. Occasionally a macOS developer would encounter an error about a missing file that the Windows developers didn’t encounter. The problem was usually because of inconsistent casing being used in a file name and some reference to the file in code. By enabling the case sensitive file system the Windows developers are able to better check when their casing is inconsistent.
The feature is enabled on a folder and its children. It isn’t something that you would want to try to enable system wide. I use this feature on project folders.
To enable the case sensitive file system open an administrative command prompt. Then use the following command.
fsutil.exe file SetCaseSensitiveInfo c:\PathTo\Target\Folder enable
After the command runs you can test it out by creating a few files in the folder that have the same name with different casing. If you ever want to turn off the case sensitive file system the command to do this is similar.
fsutil.exe file SetCaseSensitiveInfo c:\PathTo\Target\Folder disable