Power Options for the Raspberry Pi 4

The Raspberry Pi has a few more power options than what one might gather from a quick glance. With the exception of the computer modules (which will get no further mention here) the Pis have a USB port for providing power. The Pi-4 has a USB-C port while the other units use micro-USB. In most cases having a 5-volt power supply with a the appropriate USB interface is sufficient. Using the USB interface, the Pi can be powered through a phone charger. This includes portable chargers, which might be used if the Pi needs to be placed where outlets are not available or if they must be movable. The USB port isn’t the only way to power the Pi though.

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Another way of powering the Pi is through the 40-pin connector. There are pins labeled 5V and GND. these pins are often used as a voltage output. But these pins can also be used as a voltage input. Applying appropriate voltage to these pines will power the Pi on. In addition to applying 5-volts directly, there are also Pi-hats made for interfacing to these pins. On the Pi-4 and Pi-3, just behind the Ethernet connector, there are 4 pins. These pins connect to the unused connections in the Ethernet jack. With a Power over Ethernet (PoE) hat, voltage supplied over these pins can be passed through a voltage regulator and then fed into the Pi.

Pi PoE Pins

To use this there are a few conditions that must be met. If you are considering this this solution then you will undoubtedly be using the Pi with a wired network connection. You also need a means of injecting power into the network. Some routers have this functionality build in. For routers that do not, there are various forms of PoE power injectors. With this solution a headless Pi only needs one cable for providing a network connection and a the power. Such hats are available in a number of form-factors. My preference is towards the one of the minimalist PoE adapters.

This adapter leaves many of the other pins open. If cooling is needed, the official Raspberry Pi PoE hat also has a fan.

Official Raspberry Pi PoE Hat

If you have a Pi that doesn’t support PoE, you are not out of luck! You can still take advantage of it with adapters for extracting power from the extra lines and routing it to the USB input on your Pi.

PoE Extractor with Micro-USB

Another way of powering a Pi is with batteries. While it is possible to take consumer batteries (AA or AAA batteries) and power a Pi with those, I would not suggest it. There are options available with higher capacities and other features that are worth considering. In looking at a battery solution not only might you want to consider the battery capacity, but the inclusion of a real time clock and the ability to query the power level of the batteries. The most basic solutions only provided power and a USB port for charging the battery.

Many of the solutions use 18650 batteries. So named because they are 18mm in diameter and 65mm long. These cells look a lot like enlarged AA batteries. Even if you don’t recognize them, you’ve probably encountered these batteries before in laptop computers. Unlike the diminutive consumer batteries of similar shape, these cells rate at having a nominal voltage of 3.7 volts each. With two batteries together they are able to meet and exceed the 5-volt power requirement for the Pi. Power regulation circuits within the battery adapters ensure that the power delivered to the Pi doesn’t exceed 5-volts.

Laptop battery with the contents shown.
A laptop battery that has been opened up to show the 18650 batteries from the inside.

One of my favourite is the Geekworm X728. This unit contains a real-time clock and has scripts available for probing the state of the battery. The unit allows settings for having the pi automatically startup when power is applied and shutting down when when the battery level is low. For increasing the battery capacity, additional pairs of batteries can be added to the X728-A2 . The X728-A2 is made only for connecting to the X728 and add additional batteries. Though if you have the know-how, you can connect additional batteries in parallel to the ones in the X728. The board shows the power level through three LEDS on the side. There’s also a dedicated power-button on the board for powering up and shutting down.

X728 In an Acrylic Case

In close second is the PiJuice. Right now the PiJuice is a lot more expensive than the X728 at almost twice the price. But it has an additional feature; the PiJuice allows scripts to be scheduled to run under specific power or time conditions. While the battery included with the PiJuice has lower capacity than a pair of 18650 batteries, there are use cases under which it could have longer usage before requiring a charge. On the PiJuice the Pi can be put to sleep, consuming much less power, and then wake up to perform some work and go back to sleep.

The PiJuice mounted to the back of a Pi 3B

The last battery kit I want to mention is sold under various names. When I ordered one, it was branded under GeekPi. While that specific SKU is no longer available, the same unit is available branded from MakerHawk. It is often described as a UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply). It is the least expensive of the battery kits, costing less than half the price of either of the other two. But it doesn’t have any way for the pi to detect the battery level or a way to have the Pi react to power events. It only provides power and nothing more. Like the X728, one could connect additional batteries in parallel to increase the available energy.

UPS mounted to the underside of a Raspberry Pi 4

All of the battery solutions can also function as a UPS; if external power fails your Pi would be able to continue working. I’ve been able to keep the Pis running for hours at a time (days in the case of the Pi Juice on a wake/sleep schedule). I love the overall compactness of the the battery solutions made for the Pi. Some time in the future I plan to present one of the Pi based solutions that I made using the batteries.

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USB Networking with the Pi


I stumbled upon a thread in the Raspberry Pi forums about enabling networking on the USB-C port on the Raspberry Pi 4. At first glance I thought this would be about networking with a USB-C to Ethernet dongle. It’s not. It is about configuring the Raspberry Pi to present as a network adapter when connected to another device with a USB-C cable. While this might sounds like a rather pedestrian capability at first it is something that has a lot of potential. I see using this when I want to do development on the Pi and I’m in an environment in which a network isn’t available (such as when I’m on a long plane trip) or when there’s a network but I just can’t connect the Pi to it (such as on a corporate network).  Additionally since I expect my Android tablet to loose it’s ability to run Linux this provides a portable dev environment in which I can put the capabilities that I need.

The basic steps in what to do can be found on this thread posted by the user thagrol.  The steps are simple. I am re-posting the steps here.

  1. Open /boot/config.txt and add the line
  2. Open /boot/cmdline.txt and append the following
  3. Reboot the Pi

After doing these steps when the Pi is connected to a computer the computer will see it as a networking device. If you list the network adapters on the Pi you will see a new network adapter with the name usb0.

thagrol notes that the mac address generated for both sides of this virtual network adapter will be different every time that the service is started. This can cause issues when using DHCP.   He provides a solution in the form of a script that will generate a set of MAC addresses based on a unique identifier in the Raspberry Pi.  After cloning the GIT repository for the script run it as root.

sudo ./set_id.py --test


Once the addresses are generated they can be added to /boot/cmdline.txt. The addition will follow this format.

g_ether.host_addr=HOST_MAC_ADDRESS g_ether.dev_addr=DEVICE_MAC_ADDRESS

In my case  the additional entry will be

g_ether.host_addr=02:00:27:75:0a:a5 g_ether.dev_addr=06:00:27:75:0a:a5

I’m going to set a static IP on my pi. To do this the file /etc/dhcpcd.conf must be edited. Scrolling to the bottom of the file commented out is a demonstration of how to set a static address.


For the USB interface I’e added two lines to the bottom of this file

interface usb0
static ip_address=

After rebooting the Pi now shows this address for the USB network interface. I’m connecting to my pi with a Windows machine. After physically connecting the device a static IP address was set on the Windows side.


To ensure that things are working I started off trying to ping the device and received positive responses.


Pinging with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128
Reply from bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128
Reply from bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128
Reply from bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128

To try something a bit more functional I tried opening a folder on the Pi using Visual Studio Code running from my computer. Success!


In theory this could work with a phone or other mobile device. The restricting factor is whether someone’s mobile device allows changing settings on external network adapters. Many will allow communication over such adapters, but a much smaller set will allow you to change the settings.

Editing a C# file on the Pi over SSH from a Chromebook

Something to note though, when using this solution on a mobile device there is a significant power drain, which makes sense; the mobile device’s battery is now working for two. There are a few ways to mitigate this but they break down to either batteries or external power. For batteries someone could add a battery to the Pi itself. There are a number of solutions that work well. I prefer PiJuice since it comes with some other options on invoking behaviours based power levels or time. Unfortunately at the time that I am writing this (during the 2020 shelter-at-home directive) this specific unit looks to be unavailable.

There are many other Pi batteries available. If you shop for one make sure that you purchase one that provides power through the headers or through pogo pens. Some provide power through the USB-C connector, which you need to keep available to act as a network connection.  Also give consideration to the connector used to charge the unit you select. You might prefer micro-USB or USB-C.  I would suggest not overclocking your Pi if it is running off of a battery. Some batteries might not be compatible with some types of cases. Ex: there is a Pi case that is essentially a heatsink that wraps the entire device. That would not work with with a power solution that uses pogo pens.

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Raspberry Pi 4

GeeekPi Raspbery Pi 4 UPS Power Supply

4PK 18650 Battery